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通用轿车的危机办理有什么经历?波音又是怎么犯错的?

Ellen Florian 2019年06月19日

想要处理好触及人员伤亡的企业危机,一个重要准则是要表现出关怀。

想要处理好触及人员伤亡的企业危机,一个重要准则是要表现出关怀。但是在埃塞俄比亚航空公司的302航班发作坠机事端80天后,波音公司的董事长兼首席履行官丹尼斯·米伦伯格才严厉抱歉,此刻距狮航的610航班失事现已达5个月之久,两次事端航班的机型都是737 MAX飞机,共导致346人丧生。

“我亲自向遇难者的家人致歉了。”他向哥伦比亚广播公司《晚间新闻》的主播诺拉·奥唐奈说道,这是自从两起事端发作以来他初次承受采访。“咱们为空难感到伤心,对事端表明歉意。咱们对两起空难构成的伤亡很惋惜,这一点永久不会改动,将铭记于心。能够告知你,空难也直接影响到了作为波音公司领导的我,那段时刻很伤心。”

米伦伯格还供认,MCAS软件并未正确地装置启用,交流也未稳当履行,MCAS是737 MAX飞机装置的最新飞翔操控体系,从前导致两架失事飞机的机头不受控地下压。米伦伯格在采访中的讲话无疑是朝着正确方向迈出的一步,但回应得太晚了,并且很平平。波音仍是或许成为商学院剖析危机公关时给出的过错事例。

“采访中应该表达爱情,或许说是热心,特别想操控损失时更该如此。”公关公司Strategic Vision PR Group的首席履行官、媒体联系和危机交流专家戴维·约翰逊说道,“他看起来过于镇定,并且回避了一些问题。”

举例来说,奥唐奈从前问道:“你能幻想机上的乘客有多惧怕吗?”米伦伯格答复道:“咱们对事端进行了全方位查看,不是为了推脱职责或归咎于人,仅仅想澄清本相。”

“他答复这个问题应该带着关心的心情。”约翰逊说道,“他应该说:‘底子无法幻想,我都不敢去想。我能够了解遇难者家人的沉痛。’”

米伦伯格在答复传闻第二起坠机事端怎么想时,也能够用另一种模板答复:“这次事端打击到公司的中心。我在波音工作了34年,一向都在尽力制作安全的产品。咱们马上叫停,评价局势,并当即采纳举动改善,最终危时机稳固公司的中心价值。”

危机应对的金科玉律

企业总会遇到危机,而企业应对危机的办法会在大众眼中构成继续的形象。1982年强生泰诺污染在芝加哥导致7人中毒逝世,随后大规模召回产品,强生的处理办法能够说是危机办理的模范。应对极差的事例则有,在2010年墨西哥湾钻井渠道爆破夺去11人的生命之后,英国石油的首席履行官唐熙华成为媒体重视的焦点,他说了许多不达时宜的话,包含极欠考虑地诉苦“我想过曾经安静的日子”。

在737 MAX危机发作今后,波音屡次应对失当,影响了本来牢靠的名誉,也损害了乘客对飞机的决心。“危机交流的关键是先下手为强。”约翰逊说道,“波音本该当即宣告停飞737 MAX,直到找出问题。”但据《纽约时报》报导,在3月10日埃塞俄比亚航班坠毁后,各国航空部分纷繁指令停飞737 MAX,米伦伯格却直接找美国总统特朗普确保飞机安全。一天今后,跟着压力变得越来越大,波音才决议出于“多加当心”考虑,向美国联邦航空局主张暂时停飞737 MAX。

在第2次坠机事端约一个月后,米伦伯格录制了一段抱歉视频,并说到在大多数坠机事情中都会发作的“一连串事情”,看起来像是推脱波音和MCAS体系在坠机事情中负有的职责。在几周后举行的年度股东大会上,他重申飞翔员应该负职责,表明飞翔员没有“彻底遵从”某些程序。他还说道,“在根本规划和办法验证方面没有发现技术上存在失误或缝隙。”

在几天后宣布的一份声明中,波音则大改口风,供认在狮航航班坠机一年多前就知道MCAS软件存在过失危险。声明还称,波音公司直到狮航航班坠毁后才告知了美国联邦航空局。值得注意的是,波音宣称公司高层领导直到第一次事端发作后才了解到相关过失。

3A准则

与此构成比照的是,在2014年通用轿车的焚烧开关缺点导致100多人逝世后,公司的首席履行官玛丽·巴拉作出了坦率的回应。她没有使用框定有限职责的法令战略自我维护,而是承担起职责,向利益相关者诚实抱歉并奇妙交流,不只亲自上门访问,还聘请了“9·11”受害者补偿基金的担任人肯·范伯格担任处理受害者补偿事宜。她还聘请了一名独立调查员,辞退了丑闻相关人员。

“供认(acknowledge)、抱歉(apologize)和举动(act),这是做好危机办理的根底之一。”通用轿车担任焚烧开关问题和凡士通轮胎召回问题的危机交流战略师杰夫·埃勒说道。他弥补道:“(米伦伯格)亲自出头抱歉就十分风趣,阐明这位首席履行官现已别无挑选了。”

理查德·布兰森也是深谙危机办理之道的企业首领。2014年,维珍银河公司的航天飞机在莫哈韦沙漠爆破,导致一名试飞员逝世,另一名飞翔员重伤。之后,布兰森亲自赶往坠机现场,满怀怜惜地针对悲惨剧进行了面临面的交流。

美联航的一名乘客上一年被拖下飞机,该公司的首席履行官奥斯卡·穆尼奥兹开始反响很糟糕——他称之为“令人懊丧的事情”,并表明会支撑职工。但在大众愤恨心情迸发之后,穆尼奥兹敏捷改动态度。“任何人都不应该遭受如此优待。” 他宣布声明说道,“挑选正确的路永久不会太晚。”他还在承受美国广播公司采访时表明“惭愧”。

现在,波音想在航空公司和乘客心目中重建诺言任务艰巨,第一步是让737 MAX飞机复飞。何时能完成?或许没有开始估量那么快。本年5月下旬,美国联邦航空局的署理局长丹尼尔·埃尔韦尔在沃思堡与全球民航当局进行了谈判,他回绝泄漏737 MAX详细将在何时复飞,仅仅说:“假如需求一年时刻才干充分证明能够免除禁飞指令,那就等一年吧。”最近,美联航将737 MAX航班的停飞时刻延伸到了8月初。穆尼奥兹在近来承受CNBC采访时表明,即便737 MAX复飞,也无法“假定人们能承受,也无法假定人们能够战胜心理障碍”。这意味着在应对危机方面,米伦伯格还有很长的路要走:“咱们都知道,不论要赢得仍是赢回大众信赖,都需求一些时刻。”(188bet首页网)

译者:艾伦

审校:夏林

An important tenet of managing a corporate crisis that involves loss of human life is to show that you care. Eighty days after the fatal crash of Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, coming five months after the doomed Lion Air Flight 610, Boeing’s Chairman and CEO Dennis Muilenburg made a serious attempt to show personal contrition for the loss of the 346 lives aboard both 737 MAX aircraft.

“I do personally apologize to the families,” he told CBS Evening News anchor Norah O’Donnell in his first interview since the two tragedies. “We feel terrible about these accidents, and we apologize for what happened. We are sorry for the loss of lives in both accidents, and that will never change. That will always be with us. I can tell you it affects me directly as a leader of this company. It’s very difficult.”

Muilenburg also admitted that implementation of the MCAS software—the new flight control system in the 737 MAX that erroneously pushed the nose of both aircraft down—was not done correctly and that communication on that problem was not what it should have been. Muilenburg’s statements in the interview are undoubtedly a step in the right direction, but the response is late—and tepid. And it will likely do nothing to keep the company from becoming a business school case study in what not to do in a crisis.

“One of the things you want during an interview, especially when you’re trying to do damage control is express emotion, express passion,” says media relations and crisis communications expert David Johnson, CEO of Strategic Vision PR Group. “He seemed overly clinical. He skirted some of her questions.”

Case in point: O’Donnell asked, “Can you imagine how terrifying that was for the people on board?” Muilenburg’s response,” We examine every dimension of these accidents. Not to try to attribute fault or point fingers, but it’s to understand end-to-end what happened.”

“That should have been a thoughtful question for him,” says Johnson. “He should have said, ‘It’s unimaginable, I cannot even think about it. My heart goes out to the family members.’”

Another bit of Muilenburg’s boilerplate was his response to the question about what went through his mind when he heard about the second plane crash: “This gets to the core of who we are as a company. You know, I’ve been at Boeing for 34 years. I spent a career working on safe products. We pause, we assess the situation, we immediately began to take actions on what we could do to improve and in the end this reinforces our values as a company.”

Crisis Gold Standard

Crises are bound to happen in corporations. It’s the response to the crisis that forms lasting public perceptions about the character of a company. The gold standard in crisis management is Johnson & Johnson’s 1982 massive product recall after Tylenol tampering in Chicago poisoned seven people to death. Toward the other end of the spectrum: A 2010 rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico that took 11 lives and put BP’s CEO Tony Hayward under the glare of media scrutiny. He uttered a number of gaffes including the famously thoughtless “I want my life back” remark.

Boeing’s numerous missteps after the 737 MAX crisis have damaged its solid reputation and harmed passenger confidence in the plane. “The key to crisis communications is being proactive,” says Johnson “What Boeing should have done right away is announce that they were grounding the 737 Max until they could find out what the problem was.” But as aviation authorities across the world were grounding the MAX after the March 10 Ethiopian crash, Muilenburg appealed directly to President Trump about the safety of the aircraft, according to the NYT. A day later, under increasing pressure, the company decided to recommend to the FAA the temporary suspension of the fleet out of an “abundance of caution.”

Approximately a month after the second crash, Muilenburg recorded an apology video that also references a “chain of events” he said happens in most crashes, which seemed to deflect full accountability away from Boeing and the part the MCAS system played in the crash. He reiterated pilot blame a few weeks later at the annual shareholders meeting when he said some procedures were not “completely followed.” He also said the company hasn’t “seen a technical slip or gap in terms of the fundamental design and certification of the approach.”

Then several days later, Boeing issued a very different statement, admitting that the company knew more than a year before the Lion Air crash that there was a mistake in the software. The statement also says Boeing informed the FAA only after the Lion Air crash. And notably, this admission makes a point of stating that senior company leadership only became aware of the error after the first accident.

The Triple AAAs

Weigh all that against GM CEO Mary Barra’s up-front response to the 2014 ignition switch defects that claimed more than 100 lives. She didn’t circle the wagons around a legal strategy that would limit liability. She took responsibility. She apologized, communicated deftly to stakeholders, visited family members, hired Ken Feinberg, who oversaw the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund, to handle victim compensation at GM. She also hired an independent investigator, and fired people linked to the scandal.

“One of the foundations of good crisis management is acknowledge, apologize and act,” says crisis communications strategist Jeff Eller, who worked on the GM ignition switch issue as well as the Firestone tire recall. He adds: “[Muilenburg’s] personal apology is pretty interesting because it tells me it’s reached a point where the CEO doesn’t have much of a choice but to do that.”

Another leader who understands how to act in crisis: Richard Branson. After the 2014 explosion of a Virgin Glactic space plane in the Mojave Desert that killed a test pilot and seriously injured another, Branson struck the right tone by traveling to the scene of the crash and communicating personally and sympathetically about the human tragedy.

And though United Continental CEO Oscar Munoz, botched his initial response to the passenger being dragged off a flight last year—he called it an “upsetting event” and told employees he stood behind them—Munoz quickly reversed course after public outrage. “No one should ever be mistreated this way,” he said in a statement. “It’s never too late to do the right thing.” He also expressed feeling “shame” in an ABC News interview.

Reestablishing credibility with airlines and passengers is a monumental task for Boeing. The first step is getting the planes off the ground. When will that happen? Not as soon as originally thought. After a meeting in Fort Worth at the end of May with global civil aviation authorities, acting FAA chief Daniel Ellwell declined to give a timetable: “If it takes a year to find everything we need to give us confidence to lift the order, then so be it.” United recently extended flight cancellations for their 737 MAX planes until early August. Even once the plane flies, the airline will not “assume everyone will want to fly or assume that everyone will get over it,” said Munoz recently to CNBC. Which means Muilenberg still has a long road ahead in managing this crisis: “We know it will take some time to earn and re-earn that public confidence.”

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